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Toilets, NBC and a Gendered Perspective

Aruna Ramani Grover


The author examines the issue of embedded patriarchy in the norms and standards
recommended by the National Building Code of India 2016 with specific reference to
provisions for toilets for some public building selected for listing. It demonstrates how this
list is incomplete and the consequences thereof in the public realm. Thereafter by analyzing
the provision made for the selected buildings it points to aberrations which have continued
over three revisions to the code over a period of 46 years. It concludes by calling for an
attitudinal change with toilets being read spaces where humans perform essential and very
private body functions to meet differential needs of men and women.

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